Home  ·  in Albanian  ·  Contact ACL  ·  Albanian Canadian League  ·  Albanian Canadian League Services
Albania Gallery  ·  Albanian Videos  ·  Albania Profile  ·  Encyclopedia  ·  Albanian Canadian Foundation
Thomas Simaku with a CD Release on Naxos
A CD comprising 6 works performed by the Kreutzer Quartet has just been released in the UK on Naxos records,and also in USA and Canada.
Thomas Simaku is an Albanian Composer among 21st Century Classics.For more information about individual tracks, please go to Naxos website.
A new CD release of Thomas Simaku

Monument to the Victims of Communism in Ottawa - Canada
Communist Sign the petition to support the building of a Monument to the Victims of Communism, in Ottawa, Canada

To: Parliament of Canada
While the horrors of Nazism are well known, who knows that the Soviet Union murdered 20 million people? Who knows that China's dictators have slaughtered an estimated 60 million? Who knows that the Communist holocaust has exacted a death toll surpassing that of all of the wars of the 20th century combined ? Just as we must grasp Communism's brutality, we must understand the true cause of this era's most significant event: the fall of the Soviet Union. While we believe that Vaclav Havel was right when he saw the fall of the Communist empire as an event on the same scale as the fall of the Roman Empire, it was not the end of Communism. Sign and Join this petition

Who recognised KOSOVA as an Independent State?
Countries that have recognized or Announced the recognition of Republic of Kosova
We are honored and humbled that it is our generation that lives to see that day and we are aware and ready to take up the path that begins from here. Our future is with Europe.Thank you from the bottom of our hearts, for standing by us in the worst times. In memory of those who gave and lost their lives, and loved ones. May peace and light prevail. Countries who recognized Kosova

Boycott of Greek products in Albania
Boycott of Greek products in Albania!

Albanian nationalists, who accuse Greece of turning the country into a non-conventional colony of Greece, are using the protest to halt the rising power of Greece in the country. In 2006 Greek Imports reached EUR 406mn, while Greek investments are estimated at over EUR 400mn. Greek companies and businesses own substantial shares in the telecommunication, petroleum and financial markets in the country. Strong protests were organized by the "Cham" population, ethnic Albanians that used to live in the territory of current Greece till the end of World War II. Afterwards, they forcedly expelled from their properties. Therefore we call on you to Boycott greek products in Albania

Donation for an Albanian Bridge in Shkoder City.
Has started a project to raise funds to build a bridge in the village of "Ure e Shtrenjte", near Shkoder. In need for donation to complete this project. More ..

Our World in ..

Translate ACLIS
in your language ..

Main Menu
· Home
· Encyclopedia
· Recommend Us
· Search
· Statistics
· Stories Archive
· Submit News
· Surveys


There isn't content right now for this block.

ACLIS Statistics
We received
page views since April 2004

Albanian History:

ILLYRIA the ancient civilization in southeastern Europe
Posted on Monday, March 21 @ 20:30:05 PST by acl

Albanian History
    In classical history, Illyria or Illyricum or Illyrikon was a region of the western Balkan Peninsula inhabited by the tribes and clans of Illyrians, an ancient people who probably spoke an Indo-European language Illyrian Soldier (the Illyrian languages) and who are believed to be the main ancestral group of modern Albanians also called "Shqipetaret" (in albanian language; freely translated as "The Sons of Eagles").

    The main cities of Illyria were 1000 BC, a period coinciding with the end of the Bronze Age and beginning of the Iron Age. For at least the next millennium, they occupied lands extending from the Danube, Sava, and Morava rivers to the Adriatic Sea and the Šar Mountains.

    The name "Albania" is derived from the same Proto-Indo-European root as "Alps"; an Illyrian tribe of "mountain folk" called the Arber, or Arberesh묠and later Albanoi, lived near.

    The name "Shqiperia" (as Albanians orginally call their country) is derived from the word "Shqiponja" = Eagle. One of the most suitable translations of the word "Shqiperia" is: "The Land of Eagles".

    In the 19th and early 20th century, archaeologists associated the Illyrians with the Hallstatt culture, an Iron Age people noted for production of iron and bronze swords with winged-shaped handles (Ha C) and for horse breeding. Nowadays, the equation of material culture with linguistic and political groups is seen as problematic, as neither the rate of culture change nor of linguistic change is well known.

    The area had initially been settled by two groups that would later be known as the Pannonians and the Dalmatians in Roman Empire times, but modern ideologies of racial nationalism tend to minimize the amount of tribal mixing that has taken place over the last three millennia.

    The Illyrians carried on commerce and warfare with their neighbors. The ancient Macedonians probably had some Illyrian roots, but under Philip of Macedon their ruling class adopted Greek cultural characteristics. The Illyrians also mingled with the Thracians in adjoining lands on the east. In the south and along the Adriatic coast, the Illyrians were heavily influenced by the Greeks, who founded trading colonies there. The present-day city of Durres evolved from a Greek colony known as Epidamnos, which was founded at the end of the 7th century BC Another famous Greek colony, Apollonia, arose between Durr볠and the port city of 5th century BC, a well-developed Illyrian population center existed as far north as the upper Sava River valley in what is now Slovenia. Illyrian friezes discovered near the present-day Slovenian city of Ljubljana depict ritual sacrifices, feasts, battles, sporting events, and other activities.

    At various times, groups of Illyrians migrated over land and sea into Italy.

    Illyrian Kingdom
    The Illyrian kingdom of Bardhyllus became a formidable local power in the 4th century BC. In 359 BC, King Perdiccas III of Macedonia was killed by attacking Illyrians. In 358 BC, however, Macedonia's Philip II, the father of Alexander the Great, defeated the Illyrians and assumed control of their territory as far as Lake Ohrid. Alexander himself routed the forces of the Illyrian chieftain Clitus in 335 BC, and Illyrian tribal leaders and soldiers accompanied Alexander on his conquest of Persia. After Alexander's death in 323 BC, independent Illyrian kingdoms again arose. In 312 BC, King Glaukius expelled the Greeks from Durr볮 By the end of the third century, an Illyrian kingdom based near what is now the Albanian city of Montenegro, and Herzegovina. Under Queen Teuta, Illyrians attacked Roman merchant vessels plying the Adriatic Sea and gave Rome an excuse to invade the Balkans.

    In the Illyrian Wars of 229 BC and 219 BC, Rome overran the Illyrian settlements in the Neretva river valley and suppressed the piracy that had made the Adriatic unsafe. In 180 BC the Dalmatians declared themselves independent of the Illyrian king Gentius, who kept his capital at Skodra (Shkoder). The Romans made new gains in 168 BC, and Roman forces captured Gentius at Shkoder, which they called Scodra, and brought him to Rome in 165 BC. A century later, Julius Caesar and his rival Pompey fought their decisive battle near Durr볠(Dyrrachium). Rome finally subjugated recalcitrant Illyrian tribes in the western Balkans during the reign of Emperor Tiberius in 9 AD, and established the province of Illyricum, governed by an Imperial legate. The Romans divided the lands that make up present-day Albania among the provinces of Macedonia, Dalmatia, and Epirus

    Classical Illyria and environs, from Alexander G. Findlay's Classical Atlas to Illustrate Ancient Geography, New York, 1849For about four centuries, Roman rule brought the Illyrian-populated lands economic and cultural advancement and ended most of the enervating clashes among local tribes. The Illyrian mountain clansmen retained local authority but pledged allegiance to the emperor and acknowledged the authority of his envoys. During a yearly holiday honoring the Caesars, the Illyrian mountaineers swore loyalty to the emperor and reaffirmed their political rights. A form of this tradition, known as the kuvend, has survived to the present day in northern Albania.

    The Romans established numerous military camps and colonies but complete latinization was confined to the coastal cities. They also oversaw the construction of aqueducts and roads, including the Via Egnatia, a famous military highway and trade route that led from Durres through the Shkumbini River valley to Macedonia and Byzantium (later Constantinople). Copper, asphalt, and silver were extracted from the mountains. The main exports were wine, cheese, oil, and fish from Shkod베Lake and Lake Ohrid. Imports included tools, metalware, luxury goods, and other manufactured articles. Apollonia became a cultural center, and Julius Caesar himself sent his nephew, later the Emperor Augustus, to study there.

    Illyrians distinguished themselves as warriors in the Roman legions and made up a significant portion of the Praetorian Guard. Several of the Roman emperors had their origin in the Romanized population of Illyria. They included Diocletian (284-305) who saved the empire from disintegration by introducing institutional reforms, Constantine the Great (324-337) who accepted Christianity and transferred the empire's capital from Rome to Byzantium, which he called Constantinople and Justinian (527-565) -- who codified Roman law, built the most famous Byzantine church, the Hagia Sophia, and reextended the empire's control over lost territories.

    Christianity came to the Illyrian-populated lands in the 1st century Saint Paul wrote that he preached in the Roman province of Illyricum, and legend holds that he visited Durres. When the Roman Empire was divided into eastern and western halves in 395, the lands that now make up Albania were administered by the Eastern Empire but were ecclesiastically dependent on Rome.

    However in 732 a Byzantine emperor, Leo the Isaurian, subordinated the area to the patriarchate of Constantinople. For centuries thereafter, the Albanian lands became an arena for the ecclesiastical struggle between Rome and Constantinople. Most Gheg Albanians living above the Shkumbini River which includes today's Tirana, the Capital of Albania, Shkodra, the fertile lands by the Adriatic Sea and the lake of Shkodra, and the especially prosperous fields of Kosovo and Tetovo became Roman Catholic, while the Tosk Albanians living across the Mountenous Eastern South and the Boggy Southwest regions, below Shkumbini River, joined the Orthodox church.

    The name "Illyria" went out of use after the division of the Roman empire under Diocletian. It was revived by Napoleon for the 'Provinces of Illyria' that were incorporated into the French Empire from 1809 to 1813, and the 'Kingdom of Illyria' was part of Austria until 1849, after which time it was not used in the reorganised Austro-Hungarian Empire.

    The name Illyrians was used by some groups among the Croats up to their period of romantic nationalism in the 19th century, but was eventually abandoned as a potentially misleading anachronism.

    In drama and literature Illyria can be a half-fictional country, e.g., in William Shakespeare's Twelfth Night and in Lloyd Alexander's The Illyrian Adventure ISBN 0141303131.

    Today, there are Albanian personal names which are obviously part of Illyrian legacy such as masculine names: "Ilir", "Arber", "Dardan", "Agron" as well as feminine names like "Teuta".

    Illyrian tribes

    Atintani (Atintanes)
    Autariates (Autariate)
    Colapiani (Colapani)
    Dasaret (Dassarstae, Dassarenses, Dassaretae)
    Delmatae (Delmetae)
    Encheleae (Enchelleae)
    Iasi (Jasi)
    Labeat (Labeatae, Labeates)
    Mollos (Mollosi, Molossii)
    Oseriates (Osseriates)
    Paion (Paeones)
    Parthin (Parthini)
    Perestae (Penestae)
    Pirustae (Pirust, Pipustae)
    Taulant (Taullani)

World IQ

Related Links
· More about Albanian History
· News by acl

Most read story about Albanian History:

CIA and British MI6 in Albania

Article Rating
Average Score: 5
Votes: 1

Please take a second and vote for this article:

Very Good


Printer Friendly Page  Printer Friendly Page

Send to a Friend  Send to a Friend

Albanian Canadian Information Service - A.C.L.I.S
All logos and trademarks of Albanian Canadian League & Albanian Canadian League Information Service - ACLIS are property of their respective owner. The comments are property of their posters, all the rest © 2004-2009 by Albanian Canadian Information Service